According to the Vision Council of America, approximately 75 percent of adults wear some sort of vision correction. People wear eyeglasses for different reasons. Some people are nearsighted and cannot see objects far away, while other people are farsighted and cannot see objects close by. Eyeglasses offer corrective vision for people who have difficulty seeing.



It is that most wonderful time of the year—no, we are not talking about Christmas. It’s Medicare’s Annual Enrollment Season. Yes, it’s the time of the year when we stress and spend hours on the phone or online shopping for health coverage. The pain of having to shop health coverage, spend hours on the phone or online with one company vs another for our health insurance can be a daunting task. It does not matter if you are on Medicare or looking for your personal insurance, this can be one of the most….



When you consider what defines healthy eyes, among the criteria is good vision. The American Optometric Association says the term 20/20 vision is used to express normal visual acuity (the clarity or sharpness of vision) measured at a distance of 20 feet. If you have 20/20 vision, you can see clearly at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity is usually measured with a Snellen chart. It’s likely everyone has seen the Snellen chart – usually starting with a huge “E,” .....


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Psychotherapy is concerned with past influences on the present and the choices you make now. This form of therapy delves into the past and childhood events, looking for motives for current behaviors and thought patterns. It generally lasts longer in terms of both individual session time and overall therapy duration. It is most beneficial for those with long-term or recurring problems because it seeks to uncover hidden motivations or root causes. Psychotherapy can help with depression and some eating disorders. Although psychotherapy is its own form of therapy, counseling and CBT can utilize one or more theories and techniques of psychotherapy.

There are five broad categories of psychotherapy, according the American Psychological Association. Psychoanalysis and psychodynamic therapies focus on changing problematic behaviors, feelings and thoughts by discovering underlying unconscious meanings and motivations. Patients learn more about themselves by exploring their interactions in the therapeutic relationship. Psychoanalysis has been modified a great deal since Sigmund Freud’s early theories.

Behavior therapy focuses on learning’s role in developing normal and abnormal behavior. Classical conditioning from Pavlov is an example of behavior therapy. “Desensitizing” can be used to help with a phobia through repeated exposure to the source of anxiety.

Cognitive therapy emphasizes what people think rather than what they do. Cognitive therapists believe dysfunctional thinking leads to dysfunctional emotions and behaviors. By changing their thoughts, people can change how they feel and what they do. CBT is a combination of behavior and cognitive therapies.

Humanistic therapy looks at one’s capacity to make rational choices and develop one’s maximum potential. Concern and respect for others are important themes in this type of therapy. Humanistic philosophers Jean-Paul Sartre, Martin Buber and Soren Kierkegaard influenced the theories of this form of psychotherapy. There are three types of humanistic therapies. Client-centered therapy rejects the idea of therapists as authorities about a client’s inner experiences. Gestalt therapy emphasizes “organismic holism” or the importance of being aware of the “here and now” and accepting responsibility for oneself. Existential therapy focuses on free will, self-determination and the search for meaning.

The fifth form of psychotherapy, integrative or holistic therapy, blends elements from different approaches to tailor the treatment according to each client’s needs.

Life is emotionally messy. Sometimes we need professional help to work through certain issues. When you need help, how can you know which is the best type of therapy for you and your situation?

General counseling is the most prevalent form of therapy because it’s helpful to everyone at some point in his or her life. It involves talking with a therapist. The degree and depth of talking varies between the different types of counseling. General counseling therapies are ideal for mentally healthy individuals who need help with a current issue or crisis, such as anger, a relationship issue, bereavement, work-related stress, infertility or the onset of a serious illness.

There are more specific forms of counseling. Family therapy involves the entire family working with one or a pair of therapists. It helps family members communicate with each other better. Family therapy may be recommended if one family member is having a serious problem that affects the rest of the family or if trauma has occurred in the family. Issues family therapy helps with include child and adolescent behavioral problems; mental health conditions; illness and disability; separation, divorce and stepfamily life; domestic violence; and drug or alcohol addiction.

Relationship counseling or couples therapy can help when a



Angela is a staff writer for Health & Wellness magazine.

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relationship is in crisis, such as when a partner has an affair. Both partners talk in confidence to a counselor or therapist to explore what went wrong in the relationship and learn how to improve things. Some sessions will include both partners at the same time. Couples generally learn more about each other’s needs and how to communicate better.

Group therapy involves up to around 12 people meeting together with a therapist. It is useful for people who share a common problem to get support and advice from each other. Many find solace in knowing they’re not alone for just about any issue you can imagine – addiction, cheating, sex issues, dieting, grief and terminal illnesses are just a few examples.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) concentrates on eliminating unhelpful thought patterns and behaviors. Like counseling, CBT is used to deal with current situations rather than events from the past. It is useful for a variety of issues, including depression, anxiety, panic attacks, phobias, obsessive compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder and some eating disorders, especially bulimia. Goals are set and often you’ll be given tasks to carry out between sessions.