Brain cancer is a very serious form of cancer. Recently, Sen. John McCain revealed he has been diagnosed with a primary glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) – the most aggressive type of brain tumor. GBMs originate in the brain; it does not spread there from another part of the body. The cause is not known. This tumor has no relation to melanoma, the skin cancer for which McCain was treated in the past.



Chemotherapy is a standard treatment for cancer. It kills healthy cells along with cancer cells, inflicting damage on the body and seriously compromising the immune system. Chemotherapy also kills most rapidly dividing healthy and cancer cells, but not all the cells are fast growing. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a small population of cancer cells that are slow growing and thus resistant to treatment, do not die. Chemotherapy makes these cells even more numerous as the ratio of highly malignant cells….



For many women facing cancer, the most devastating aspect is learning they may lose their hair due to chemotherapy.  “Most women tell me that as soon as they hear the oncologist say, ‘You’re going to lose your hair,’ that’s the last thing they remember hearing,” said Eric Johnson, co-owner, with his wife, Jeletta, of Hair Institute in Lexington. “They can deal with the sickness; they can deal with the treatments; but it’s the hair loss that gets them the most.


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•  A change in the contour, size, texture or temperature of the breast. A pitted, reddish surface that resembles the skin of an orange could be a sign of advanced breast cancer.

•  A change in the nipple, such as dimpling, retraction, itching, ulceration or a burning sensation. A scaly rash of the nipple may be Paget’s disease, which could be associated with an underlying breast cancer.

•  Unusual discharge from the nipple that may be bloody, clear or another color. It is usually caused by benign conditions but may be due to cancer in some cases.

•  Unexplained swelling or/and shrinkage of the breast, especially if it is on one side only.

•  A lump in the underarm or breast that persists after your menstrual cycle. Often this is the first apparent symptom of breast cancer. These lumps are usually painless and are visible on a mammogram before they can be felt or seen.

Breast cancer is a tumor that starts in the cells of the breast. It can spread or metastasize to other parts of the body. Detecting breast cancer as early as possible gives you a better chance of successful treatment. You can keep up with your breast health by knowing how your breasts normally look and feel. A sign, such as a rash, can be observed and recognized by a doctor or healthcare professional. A symptom, such as pain or tiredness, is something only the person experiencing it can feel and know. A doctor should check unusual symptoms.

The most common symptom of breast cancer for many women is a mass or lump. However, many women have breast lumps; nine out of 10 of these lumps are benign, which means they are not cancerous. Most benign breast lumps are cysts (sacs of fluid) and are very common. Some are fibroadenomas – a collection of fibrous glandular tissue, common in younger women under 30 years of age – and some are areas of normal lumpiness that are more obvious just before a period.

Initially, breast cancer has no symptoms. However, as the tumor develops, you may notice the following signs:

•  Swelling in the armpit or a marble like area under the skin, which may be a sign that breast cancer has spread to the lymph nodes. Although these lumps and swellings are often painless, they may be tender.



Harleena Singh is a professional freelance writer with a background in teaching and education. She has a keen interest in food and health related issues and can be approached through her website Checkout her blog and network with her on Google+, Twitter, and Facebook.

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Other signs include pain or tenderness in the breast; a noticeable flattening or indentation on the breast, indicating a tumor that cannot be seen or felt; or an area that is different from any other area on either breast.

These signs and symptoms do not necessarily mean cancer. Bloodstained nipple discharge, inverted nipples or a rash can also be due to other medical conditions. However, you should see your doctor to be sure. He or she can refer you to a breast clinic.

Later, other signs and symptoms occur as cancer grows larger or spreads to other parts of the body, including other organs. These include weight loss, bone pain, nausea, loss of appetite, jaundice, headache, double vision, muscle weakness and buildup of fluid around the lungs.

Inflammatory breast cancer, a rare type of breast cancer, can have different symptoms. The whole breast may feel hard, can be very sore and look red and inflamed. The skin sometimes looks like an orange peel because the pores stand out in the inflamed area.

Any breast cancer symptoms you notice should be investigated as soon as possible.

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