BATTLING BALDNESS

Some men look in the mirror and regard a receding hairline with distress, wondering if there is a cure for baldness. Currently, the only truly effective medically proven way to arrest hair loss is to lower dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels. DHT is a form of testosterone that regulates beard growth and hair loss. Higher levels of DHT produce fuller beards at the cost of male pattern baldness. Lower levels of DHT ensure a full head of hair at the cost of the inability to grow a beard.

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HACKING THE HUMAN BRAIN

Many people enjoy visiting various Web sites and apps that challenge the brain by luring them deeper and deeper into cyber space. Cyber addiction comes in several forms, but all impact the brain. The past two decades have acquainted many people with the concept of hacking. It is why people strive to protect their computers and smartphones from outside sources trying to break in to steal information, implant malware and preocupy their lives.

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HEART ATTACK AND MEN

According to the American Heart Association (AHA), more than one in three adult men has heart disease. Men around the age of 55 years are more likely than women to experience a heart attack.  Men often ignore the symptoms of a heart attack because they are uncertain about what they are feeling and don’t want to be embarrassed by a simple diagnosis, such as heartburn. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 50 percent of men who die from coronary heart disease....

….FULL ARTICLE

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Last February, the FDA approved the drug Palbociclub. When used with the breast cancer drug Letrozole in trials, the combination stopped cancer progression in postmenopausal women with a treatable but incurable type of chronic breast cancer (ER-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer) for an average of 20.2 months, about double the time with just Letrozole alone.


Genetics

Last May, researchers at Cambridge Research Institute found 93 genes whose mutations convert a normal breast cell into a cancer cell. They shared their findings with universities, pharmaceuticals and biotech companies to start developing new drugs. Researchers from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and the European Bioinformatics Institute sequenced the genomes of breast cancer genes. They found five additional genes associated with breast cancer and 13 new mutational signatures that influence tumor development. This shows new causes for cancer and explains why the disease affects certain individuals. It also allows for precision medication individualized for each patient. 


Genes also play a role in whether chemotherapy will work for a patient. Now there is a test to determine this. The Oncotype Dx test analyzes 21 genes in the tumor to see if the cancer is likely to recur and to determine whether chemotherapy will be effective. This will spare thousands of women from undergoing unnecessary chemotherapy. The findings were published in the New England Journal of Medicine last September.

There are an estimated 2.8 million breast cancer survivors in the United States, a testament to the more than 25-year decline in mortality, according to the American Cancer Society. Still, 231,000 women will be diagnosed with the disease this year, and about 40,000 will die. Fortunately, there have been some exciting breakthroughs in breast cancer detection and treatment recently.


Blood Tests

Last fall, international researchers discovered isotopes carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 in certain proportions in a tissue sample can reveal the presence of cancer. This means doctors may be able to detect breast cancer with a blood test in a few years, according to lead researcher Guilaume Tcherkez. The results were published in the journal Nature. The current “best method” of detection – mammograms – are inaccurate 16 percent of the time, which results in misdiagnoses and false positives. A breast cancer blood test is already in development in France. In the United States, gene-sequencing company Illumina is working on a liquid cancer biopsy that can detect any cancer, enabling early detection. Illumina expects the product to be on the market in three years.


Drugs

Triple-negative breast tumors are aggressive, fast-growing cancers more common in women under 40. They kill a quarter of patients within

LATEST BREAKTHROUGHS IN BREAST CANCER TREATMENT

ANGELA S. HOOVER

Angela is a staff writer for Health & Wellness magazine.

more articles by Angela s. hoover

five years. The drug PIM-1 inhibitor, already in trials for fighting leukemia, attacks cancer cells resistant to chemotherapy. PIM-1 is a molecule found in leukemia patients. Scientists at King's College, London, and the Institute of Cancer Research found the PIM-1 molecule helps triple negative breast cancer cells survive by telling the cancerous cells to ignore “death signals” from toxic chemo drugs. The scientists claim giving the PIM-1 inhibitor can make cancerous cells vulnerable to chemo again. The research findings, funded by the charity Breast Cancer Now, were published in the journal Nature.


Other research found the combination of two cancer drugs, trastuzumab (Herceptic) and lapatinub (Tyverb), eliminated all signs of cancer in 11 percent of patients in 11 days. In 17 percent of the cases, the drug combination caused the tumors to shrink so significantly that chemotherapy was not warranted. The results from this combination further uncovered the role and function of the HER2 protein that halts the growth of a certain type of tumor in one out of 10 breast cancers, according to Science Daily. Better understanding of the HER2 protein revealed the RAS protein is responsible for reactivating HER2. The combination acts as a