HEART DISEASE AND THE NEED TO LOSE WEIGHT

Like many Americans, do you believe heart disease affects mostly men? In fact, heart disease is the No. 1 killer of women in the United States. Heart disease kills more women than all forms of cancer combined.  Heart disease, according to The Healthy Heart Handbook for Women, written by members of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, is one of several cardiovascular diseases that affect the heart and the blood vessel system. Others include stroke, high blood pressure and rheumatic heart disease.

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10 COMMON WEIGHT-LOSS MYTHS

There are so many misconceptions about weight loss and diets that it can be hard to know what to believe. Here are some common weight-loss myths.   Snacking and eating fast food are bad ideas.    Actually, eating small, healthy snacks between meals could help you eat less so you don’t overeat or binge later. Dietitians recommend having five small meals a day, instead of just three. Snacking has a bad rap because of some of the snack choices we make, such as potato chips, cookies, candy and other fattening items.

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FITNESS TIPS FOR LOSING WEIGHT

Summer is finally here, and you want to get your weight down and be in the best shape ever. This summer, make it your mission to reach your weight-loss goals – the same ones you probably set for yourself at the beginning of the year. Fortunately, it’s never too late to start down the path to health and wellness. Follow the guidelines below so you can put yourself on a fast track. Turn these tips into lifelong habits to ensure lasting success.

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risk of death. The study concluded treatment with beta carotene, vitamin A and vitamin E may increase mortality.


Multivitamins are equally problematic. In October 2011, researchers from the University of Minnesota found women who took supplemental multivitamins died at higher rates than those who didn’t. Researchers from the Cleveland Clinic found men who took vitamin E had an increased risk of prostate cancer. Seven previous studies had already shown vitamins increased the risk of cancer and heart disease and shortened lives. Still, in 2012, more than half of all Americans took some form of vitamin supplements.


There are a few vitamins and supplements that are actually helpful. Zinc, unlike vitamin C, has been shown to shorten a cold. The mineral seems to interfere with the replication of rhinoviruses, the bugs that cause the common cold. A 2011 review of studies found people who starting taking zinc when they initially got sick had shorter colds and less severe symptoms.


Folic acid is a B vitamin the body uses to make new cells. The National Institutes of Health recommends women who are currently pregnant or who want to get pregnant take 400 micrograms of folic acid daily because their bodies demand more of this key nutrient when they are growing a fetus. Additionally, several large studies have linked folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy to decreased rates of neural-tube defects, serious and life-threatening birth defects of the baby’s brain, spine or spinal cord.

According to a 2016 study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, about 52 percent of Americans take dietary supplements – but should they?


Since the 1940s, study after study shows little evidence of any benefits gained from taking vitamins and supplements. They are not intended to replace foods because they cannot provide all the nutrients whole foods do. Whole foods are complex and contain many nutrients. Some vitamins, such as vitamin C, seem to work only when consumed naturally. Vitamin E does not work as efficiently when it is isolated, as opposed to how it performs in nuts and seeds containing other compounds that interact with it.


Some extra vitamin doses can actually increase the risks they are supposed to protect against, such as cancer or heart disease. A 2013 editorial in the Annals of Internal Medicine asserts: “The message is simple: Most supplements do not prevent chronic disease or death. Their use is not justified and they should be avoided.”


There is a particular problem with antioxidants. In a healthy person, antioxidant supplements don’t seem to do any good and can actually cause harm. The constant interplay between electron acceptors (radicals) and donors (antioxidants) is a finely balanced, complicated

DO YOU NEED VITAMINS AND SUPPLEMENTS?

ANGELA S. HOOVER

Angela is a staff writer for Health & Wellness magazine.

more articles by Angela s. hoover

biochemistry at the core of how living cells survive and grow. When there is too much of either acceptors or donors, the system is out of balance and damage can occur. People need free radicals to kill bacteria and eliminate new cancer cells. When you take large doses of antioxidants, the balance between free radical production and destruction might tip too much in one direction, causing an unnatural state in which the immune system is less able to kill harmful invaders. Therefore, extra antioxidants aren’t necessarily a good thing. Researchers have dubbed this “the antioxidant paradox.”


In the late 1980s, there were two beta carotene intervention trials with men at high risk for developing lung cancer – one in Seattle with men exposed to asbestos and another in Finland with smokers over the age of 50. The trial lasted 10 years. The beta carotene in the supplement in both trials was higher than what naturally occurs in the body. The researchers expected to see a lower lung cancer risk from the supplements. But the opposite happened in both trials and they had to be stopped early because the beta carotene group was suffering significantly more cases of lung cancer. The results showed antioxidant supplements of beta carotene, vitamin A and vitamin E all significantly increased risk of death. Vitamin C and selenium, which are not antioxidants, had no effect one way or the other on